Lesson 3 of 4
In Progress

Rationality From Thales to Socrates

November 27, 2023

This lecture covers a wide range of philosophical topics and history, centered around the development of rational thinking in ancient Greece. It begins by discussing the need for the separation of straight chiropractic to keep the concept of subluxation alive and Integral Theory as a model for looking at periods of history. Much of the focus is then on the progression of pre-Socratic philosophers like Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Parmenides, and Pythagoras in their contemplation on the nature of reality and matter. This paved the way for Socrates to apply Pythagoras’ mathematical concepts to ideas of morality and truth. Socrates is highlighted for his relentless questioning of assumptions and definitions in the pursuit of wisdom, making him a martyr to reason. The immense influence of Socrates and Plato on Western thought is highlighted as essential to understand the foundations of philosophy.

Key Takeaways:

  • Integral Theory provides a model for looking at the progression of periods in history, with a current focus on the mental/rational era from ancient Greece onward.
  • Pre-Socratic philosophers contemplated the fundamental nature of matter and reality, laying the groundwork for ideas about mathematics, science, and morality.
  • Pythagoras proposed that mathematical relationships underlie structure and function in the world.
  • Socrates applied emerging ideas about mathematical order to conceptualizing morality, truth, and the human soul.
  • Socrates is known for relentlessly questioning assumptions and demanding definitions and clarity of thought.
  • Plato carried on the heritage of Socratic philosophy and his dialogues continue to be hugely influential in shaping Western thought.
  • Works like Plato’s Republic are considered essential reading for anyone trying to understand the foundations of philosophy.