R.J. Watkins, DC, PhC, FICC, DACBR

Dr. R.J. Watkins graduated from Lincoln Chiropractic College in 1942. His mentor was Firth, author of Chiropractic Symptomatology or The Manifestations of Incoordination Considered From a Chiropractic Standpoint (Vol. 7).

Watkins career was extraordinary. He helped to lead the early programs at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, Life Chiropractic College, and later became chairman of the Principles and Practice Department at Cleveland Chiropractic College Los Angeles.

A new book of Watkins’ collected writings was just published: The Complete Chiropractor by Stevan Walton, DC, FICC. It includes a biography of RJ Watkins and all o fhis writings.

The two-hour talk on RJ Watkins is available for online CE credit and included as part of TIC Membership.

Some of RJ Watkins Writings

All or None

Why does the average non-degreed person readily accept chiropractic rationale while the university graduate often calls it quackery or psychosomatic? A major obstacle is the “All-or-None” law, frequently quoted but out of context. We then compound the problem by using a “stepping-on-the-hose” concept to explain neurophysiology. The problem is one of semantics. Patients do make fantastic recoveries following adjustments and they don’t question the neurology. The skeptic says that it is physically impossible so that the results must be psychosomatic. Is the “all-or-none” law valid? Does it allow for communication of “intelligence?”

 

The answer lies in a simple analogy. All of us have “turned on” a light switch and can see the lamp either “on or off.” Blinker lights are used in the navy but are painfully slow. Some have used a telegraph with a simple on-off key. With proficiency one can transmit very s-l-o-w basic conversation. All have used a telephone. Here is capability of on-off at rates of nearly two thousand (2,000) per second. This frequency is capable of intelligible speech transmission at usual conversational speed. But wait a minute; there is a microwave transmission network for long distance phone calls which are sent by wireless with up to 12,000, yes twelve thousand phone conversations simultaneously emitted from ONE single tube. But that is not my nerve system, one can say. True, but the “all-or-none” law is the light switch counterpart and is being erroneously applied to much more complex systems. History? Yes, indeed. 

 

About two hundred years ago Galvani put increasing pressure upon a frog sciatic nerve with gradual diminution of the kick response. Increasing pressure on the sciatic nerve caused progressive diminution of muscle response down to zero but releasing that pressure allowed gradual increase up to full response. For many years this was accepted at face value. Adrian, Lucas and others later demonstrated that a single nerve fiber responds to its maximum or not at all just as a muscle fiber contracts “all or none.” To explain how a weak current induces a mild contraction while a strong current induces maximum contraction the investigators have reasoned that one after another of the fibers with varying excitability contracted in patterns allowing a graded response.1 This would allow the validity of the “all-or-none” law to stand in the face of the graded response of muscle contraction. This on-off concept has been the axiomatic base for arguing against “quality” of a nerve impulse. The concept is like that of a room light where the electric switch is either on or off with no rheostat as a dimmer. It is even shown that slowing a nerve impulse passage by pressure, chilling or by narcosis does not slow the impulse beyond the partial blockade. Despite the fact that the transmission speed can be slowed by “partial block” of pressure, the transmission speed beyond the partial nerve block is nearly equal to the normal rate. However there is a change in the response with demonstrably altered details. As technology improves we should be able to measure the fantastic nerve impulse quality which will easily explain many observed phenomena that will remove a road block to “scientific” understanding. Fifty years ago a microwave tower was impossible. Today a single microwave tube will carry over 12,000 telephone conversations simultaneously.

 

But what does a microwave tower have to do with chiropractic? Precisely that we have seen many intricate responses which require very specific quality of the nerve impulses. In 1895 D. D. Palmer introduced a concept that has been branded “heresy” and nonsense by “scientists” and even by many chiropractors who seem to deny their own heritage. The intelligent communication which is demonstrated consistently in everyday physiological response cannot be mediated by single impulses any more than a telephone conversation can be done with one flick of voltage or by one tap of a pencil onto the microphone. However the speed of a short volley with millions of impulses comprising a complex firing pattern truly does elicit a specific, intelligent response.

 

Examples of this complexity have been documented under many different circumstances. Some of the more definitive, question-proof instances are those of antibody response through the auricular nerve of a rabbit when different bacteria are injected into the ear. With the ear amputated except for the nerve to obviate argument on blood flow there have been many experiments showing specific antibodies being produced in response to specific reflexes.2 To further study the mechanism microelectrodes were inserted into the auricular nerve and the firing patterns recorded. Each species of bacteria induced a specifically different pattern within the nerve and a specifically different antibody response.3 This indicates a very complex intelligent message following that nerve pathway. It is not a simple-on-off switching but truly is an infinitely complex pattern built with thousands of on-off components. Thus in a sense both debaters were partially correct but the broad understanding was missing. 

 

Another fine old argument was that of slipping off the torso skin of a young frog with a loosened belt-like strip rotated to place the belly side on the back and the backside on the belly. The skin soon grew back onto the torso. Tickling the back caused the frog to scratch the belly and tickling the belly over the skin previously from the back caused him to scratch the back.4 This indicates that there is a distinct quality of the nerve impulses and that the messages do get through regardless of the lack of usual pathways. There was an earlier experiment in 1923 by P. Weiss. The gastrocnemius muscle from the leg was transplanted from the hind leg of the young frog into his front leg. He could walk and hop but when the nerve to the hind leg was stimulated electrically the transplanted gastrocnemius rear muscle jumped along with the other rear leg muscles.5 This was a real dilemma for the “all-or-none” fanatics who said that there is no quality to the nerve impulses. Still more dramatic were several series of experiments of cutting the optic nerve to check on regeneration. Not only did the tens of thousands of nerve fibers grow back into the brain but they found their correct individual connections to re-establish vision. Previously it was thought that vision was just relearned regardless of the probable random connections. The return of normal vision after the optic nerve cut was quite startling. To prove more details on relearning the eye was cut loose and rotated 180° upside down and the nerve again allowed to re-grow. Now came the surprise. The frog would strike upward to reach a fly on the floor and would strike downward to reach a fly placed up in the air. With attempts to retrain the animals for as long as two years there was no real re-education possible. Next the eye was cut out and rotated back to its normal position. Upon recovery the frog again would strike but now in his old normal direction. The conclusion was that each nerve found its proper destination despite the spaghetti like tangle during re-growth.4 An attempted explanation was that each fiber had a distinct chemical difference, a special flavor. But that is even more difficult to believe than it is to admit that there is an intelligence acting through each and every cell in the body. This admission of cellular intelligence and the transmission of intelligence by nerve pathways may stretch the credulity of the “scientist” who has learned that it is impossible. As with the bumblebee which is aerodynamically incapable of flight from the calculations of physics. So it is theoretically impossible for many things to happen in the human body. But as the bee flies so does the body work and with admirable efficiency when we give it even half a chance.

Yes, there is an All-or-None Law but it does not preclude the concept of the neural imagery and the quality of nerve impulses. The individual quality of a neuron takes a “set” as soon as it is used. There is a demonstrable change in the RNA of the nerve cell. With each usage the set becomes more sharply unique. Hence each neuron does have a distinct flavor and a distinct response pattern to aid in its intelligent function. The cut nerve fiber with the sheath is going to regenerate and grow to reach its original end point even if given a scrambling with many thousands of others. Even the wild transplantation of an entire hind leg of a frog up onto another frog’s shoulder will give a thought provoking response when stimulated electrically. When the transplanted leg is stimulated the other rear legs will jump simultaneously. Just where are the specific pathways for that message??? Still it works consistently.4 After admitting that highly complex intelligent communication is possible and does occur over normal pathways as well as over interrupted paths with their wild detours then we should be able to reasonably discuss some of the more complex responses.

 

The normal physiology of the body is coordinated and directed by the nerve system. Hormones are sustaining assistants to reinforce and sustain the nerve reflexes during prolonged action. There is also the chemical intermediary of acetylcholine in the synapses or “spark gaps.” However their action is not at all like that of soaking a finger in hot water to warm it up. Acetylcholine is liberated in tiny droplets, does its job and then is erased by cholinestrase, all of this within 1/500 of a second. With many such “secretory spots” within each synaptic cleft and with recorded neural firing patterns up to 1,500 impulses per second we cannot truthfully think that the hormones control the body or even control the nerve system. One person stated that the nerve system is only a lot of detached individual cells, not even connected but triggered by hormones. Such a crude misconception entirely missed the grandeur of the magnificent mechanism of those billions of cells acting, reacting and interacting in a fantastic concert of highly intelligent activity. The mathematical probability of such a miracle “just happening” would require many more millenia than the radioactive elements allow in the age of the world. So perhaps it would be highly logical for us to consider the alternative of creation which does require a creator. Every doctor should be awed into submissive gratitude for being allowed to even look into such a complex display of intelligent programming. Then perhaps we can admit that the Power which created the body is able to heal the body.

How else than with the neural flavor, with the quality of the impulses can we explain the visual reversal reactions when the frog’s eye is rotated? How else can we explain the specific antibody response to the specific reflex when the antigen is never within the body or even near to it? How can we explain the recovery from chronic malaria and the utter disappearance of the plasmodia from the blood stream after spinal adjustments as the only change of health routine, no drugs or therapy of any kind? How can we explain the healing of the bleeding gastric ulcers following adjustments? How can we explain the easy passage of the lodged kidney stones following a light reflex contact to reduce a subluxation? How can we explain the disappearance of a positive Babinski sign and see the “MS” patient able to run within 10 minutes after an effectively positioned perianal contact of two minutes duration?

There is an additional factor which helps to explain all these dramatic changes consistently becoming more normal and only rarely worse. It is the relative stability of the neurological reflexes. The normal physiology is “learned” early during gestation by each tissue area. It is learned from the chromosomal template pattern with each cell group doing its own work effectively. Some of the tissue types divide just 38 times, some 42 times while the skin basement membrane continues dividing until death but at the proper rate as set by the pressures against adjacent cells. Still ALL these cells have the SAME chromosomes as did the original fertilized ovum. How does one group know that it is nerve tissue and other group know that it is bone, blood or skin??? When a piece of skin is cut out or scraped too thin over one area the growth speeds up to again restore the normal structure. Only when a few of the cells “escape” from the nerve control pattern do we have cancer. Now again to the normal reflexes which are rapidly established during prenatal life. With each usage as the psychologists state, there is facilitation of the “well worn neural groove.” The cell extensions grow closer together by neurobiotaxis with closer spacing, broader contacts and an increasing number of synapses. These reflexes of normal physiology are the solid, stable ones. Next, let us consider an environmental irritant which is so drastic as to require much more adaptation than the body can accomplish. This can strain the reflex mechanism into a distortion and pervert the normal reflex into a new, unnatural, pathological but unstable reflex. Worry or mechanical trauma can introduce a subluxation into the vertebral column. The subluxation distorts the normal local sensorial conversational tone of information input. With garbled and jumbled information input there is an abnormal response. This is pathology. It is physiology gone wrong. But the chiropractor’s goal is realized when he can palpate, locate the offending subluxation and adjust it properly. Then the ventriloquist effect of the subluxation is set aside. The spotlight of clarification is shone onto the unstable pathological reflex. With adjustment of the information input, the nerve system is able to settle into the normal stable reflex pattern of health. When the subluxation is acting as a ventriloquist and garbling the information the nerve system is deceived and cannot precisely locate the subluxation well enough for the usual spontaneous correction.6 Is it then so inconceivable to believe the story of the patient who had aspiration biopsies eight days in a row and was told that the lung cancer was grade four. He stated that with the chiropractic adjustments there was a deep feeling of warmth the first day. The “glow” feeling persisted each of the next thirty days of light perianal contact adjustments and cancer disappeared. Eight years later he was still very healthy with no signs of lung cancer. Is it inconceivable that the cells which were once out from under the authoritative control of the nerve system have now submitted again to nerve control after correction of the subluxation which was distorting the information input?

Recent research has brought to light many of the concepts which D. D. Palmer intuitively grasped. Dr. W. Ross Adley of Space Biology Laboratory of UCLA’s Brain Research Institute reports, “The on-off of neurons is the minimum way the brain has of operating. The brain is not a telephone switchboard that operates only when signals arrive from outside. The switchboard is always flooded. It is altered by subtle, QUALITATIVE changes in the incoming signals, not by presence or absence of lights in the switchboard, but by shifts of brightness or color.”7 Dr. Holger Hyden of Goteborg, Sweden has shown that during a great deal of learning there is an explosive increase of RNA in the brain cell. Dr. Adley then comments on the electrical changes in the neuroglia, the supporting cells OUTSIDE the neurons as altering the RNA and the protein inside the neuron. Memories are thus not only stored by the synaptic closure of neurobiotaxis but also by subtle changes in the RNA, a deposition in the protein of the neurons. “Dr. Philip Nelson of the NIH has shown that the nerve cells in the spinal cord interact, not only by firing bursts from one to another, but also on the basis of the more subtle electrical fields they themselves generate.” Hence “we may view each of its neurons (brain) not merely as a computer-like cell with a single function, but as a versatile, complex personality in miniature. It may have a specialty, but is also able to participate in a multitude of memories, moods, perceptions and actions.” This applies to EACH one of the TEN BILLION cells. “It (the cell) has a stable, recognizable character but is willing to change, to learn from experience. A brain composed of such neurons obviously can never be ‘filled up’. Perhaps the more it knows the more it can know and create. The ultimate creative capacity of the brain may be, for all practical purposes, infinite.”7 Does this concept by leading current brain research teams sound like a refutation of D. D. Palmer or is it more an opening of much broader vistas than he or most recent chiropractors dare dream about? The limitation of the profession to manipulation of gross strains and sprains sounds like a denial of our heritage, of an abandonment of not only the early chiropractic concepts but also a denial of the validity of the many case histories documented over the past 75 years. We can well marvel at D. D. Palmer teaching the transmission of intelligence by the nerve system which he intuitively knew to be true. Seventy five years later his viewpoints are being scientifically vindicated and proven. The many years of opposition have worn down some chiropractors to the point of becoming “modern and progressive” to the point of abandoning the sick patients. Shame on us. We can well review the Palmers’ early writings and find that they were far ahead of their time in spite of the “scientific” opinion of that day.

After seeing many such dramatic recoveries over the years we realize that chiropractic was literally built on medical failures. Patients with almost every known disease have recovered. Now we can begin to see that is quite possible neurologically. Genetic and degenerative limitations are minor when compared to the mental limitations we place on ourselves, being “unable” to even try correcting the cause. Is it then logical to try limiting chiropractic to a narrow scope of “pounding down the high spots” of spine straightening as a strain & sprain specialist, as a “chiropractic orthopedist?” Is it logical to believe the hopelessness of all the so-called “irreversible” pathologies listed by specialists who never gave an adjustment? The pioneers of chiropractic who repeatedly went to jail and even adjusted patients while in that jail knew that anyone with a spine who was still living could at times benefit from proper chiropractic care. Of course they knew that there were limits of damage beyond which there was no return but who can say “no return” until proper adjustments are made for correction of the subluxation?

Why does the grateful patient believe the chiropractic rationale? Because results are hard to disprove. After all he experienced disease, pain and recovery. To the theorist there is no such motivation. He may argue that the on-off switching of a room light is totally incapable of intelligent communication. But the almost infinite complexity of nerve transmission makes such results possible. Forty years ago television was an idealistic toy but considered to be an utterly useless waste of energy. It could not be at all useful. If those critics had seen the TV picture of Neil Armstrong stepping onto the moon they would have said “faked.” So the person who has been told that the nerve system is not even a system but just scattered cells dependent upon hormonal balance will have much trouble understanding the pathogenesis of a subluxation. He will say that the recovery from terminal disease was either a technician’s mistake or that it was psychosomatic. The patient who recovered KNOWS better even though he cannot explain what happened. He knew that he was deathly sick and that he is now healthy.

Yes, the All-or-None Law has been demonstrated but it does not prove chiropractic to be quackery. A little knowledge is dangerous but a full understanding of the character of the nerve impulse, of the speed of firing, of the complex firing patterns and of the unique neural flavor of each neuron makes one say that the most dramatic recoveries are only a scratching of the surface. We will someday realize that our best results today are like children playing with sand castles. The critics still have their eyes shut and can’t even see the beach let along the sand castles which we have so laboriously built as test models for much bigger real castles.

Yes, there are different viewpoints. Like the blind men describing the elephant as a rope, a tree trunk and a wall, each was partly right. Let us wake up, open our eyes and see the grandeur of the nerve system and the magnificence of the body in its entirety. Then we can all grow and realize that All-or-None is just the beginning. It is not a stumbling block but rather it is the first step in a long stairway of understanding ourselves, our problems and our great joys.

REFERENCES

  1. See any standard physiology textbook.
  2. Kuntz, Albert – The Autonomic Nervous System, Lea & Febiger, Phila.
  3. Gordienko, A. N., Control of Immunogenesis by the Nervous System OTS, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Washington.
  4. Sperry, R. W., The Growth of nerve circuits. Scientific American, Nov., ’59.
  5. Speransky, A. D., A Basis for the Theory of Medicine (P.309) Int’l. Publ., N.Y., 1943.
  6. Watkins, R. J., The Great Ventriloquist, Chir. Econ., Jan., ’75.
  7. Leonard, G. B., Education & Ecstasy. Delta, 1968.

*MARCH/APRIL, 1975 The Digest of Chiropractic Economics

Joint Function

Skeletal flexibility is necessary for any movement. Joints are made to move. This is their primary function. Muscles are made to move the joints. Hence we should consider the two major types of spinal joints, the freely movable diarthroses and the semimovable amphiarthroses. The posterior diarthroses have gliding surfaces and need a constant lubrication. This means a capsular ligament with secretory cells to maintain optimum lubrication. Motion is limited by strong check ligaments and by antagonistic muscle action. The muscles have sheaths of fibrous tissue which like the ligaments are in a continual state of shrinkage to remove unneeded slack. Thus if a joint is moved daily thru its entire range of motion the fibrous tissue is stretched to its optimum length. Immobilization induces continual shrinkage and loss of motion. In addition muscle action promotes trophic reflexes which maintain bulk and strength.  Immobilization reduces proprioceptive input which is the sensory arm of the trophic reflex and promotes atrophy of muscle as well as shrinkage (contracture) of ligaments and fascia. 

A joint and its activating muscle form a functional unit which is maintained by use. Gradual increase in action and loading will induce hypertrophy of both the muscle and the bone. Disuse induces atrophy. Therefore it is imperative to maintain joint action. Otherwise adaptability diminishes and leaves that area more vulnerable to many types of injury. There are sensory nerve endings in and around joints specifically designed to report on loading and position. They are called proprioceptors. Each of the thousands of proprioceptors at each joint is reporting information at least once per second during sleep and up to 1,500 per second during action. This vast barrage of LOCAL SENSORIAL CONVERSATIONAL TONE is processed by the supercomputer in each segment of the cord and is correlated in the brain stem, cerebellum and cerebral cortex to maintain all skilled activities. Any distortion of this information input disturbs the total function and will be discussed later.

The second general type of joint, the amphiarthrosis is typified by the intervertebral disc. This also allows motion but not gliding. Hence it is bending and twisting that occurs thanks to the strong fibrous ring as a band with the jelly center as a fluid cushion shock absorber. These joints also have check ligaments, activating muscles and abundant proprioceptive endings. The vertebral joints from C2 to L5 have both discs and diarthroses to efficiently handle the needed functions and loads. Now let us consider normal and abnormal loading.

Normal loading and use of every joint is vital to joint maintenance. After three weeks of zero gravity the space folk showed up to 60% loss of calcium in the calcaneus. Loading induces a piezo-electric effect within the bone which is a part of Wolf’s Law on bone remodeling. Still this has a neural component usually overlooked. Where the sensory pathway is cut or distorted there is the same piezoelectric phenomenon BUT NO remodeling and repair. The result is neurotropic arthropathy typical in Charcot’s joint, diabetes and leprosy. Hence the cybernetic mechanism known as the trophic reflex with its proprioceptive sensory component is a major factor in slow healing of wounds and in many arthritis cases.  

Normal loading of bone is needed to maintain bone mass, i.e. disuse atrophy follows no load. Normal strain on the activating muscles is needed to maintain muscle bulk and muscle strength. Hypertrophy and atrophy are the function of use & disuse. Joint excursion is needed to stretch the ligaments, the muscle sheaths and the fascia to prevent shrinkage and contracture. Again the neural component is overlooked, but critical.

Overload of any joint takes several forms. Overload of stress in the neutral position if minimal will induce quite even hypertrophy of the bone and cartilage. If the overload exceeds structural limits the cartilage plate which is the weakest spot in the intervertebral joints will show impaction end plate fracture. If the joint is near maximum flexion with sudden heavy overload there is usually vertebral body compression fracture with AP wedging. The intervertebral disc is much stronger than the body and never ruptures unless it has been weakened for a long time. Hence disc rupture implies chronic subluxation with recurrent meningeal nerve dysfunction for many months or years.

Sudden heavy overload of the cervical spine in extension can crush an articular process but they are normally very strong. More often there will be pedicle fracture. Another heavy sudden overload, not of compression but of severe hyperextension has torn anterior ligaments produced avulsion fracture and even split a vertebral body. A seat belt buckle fulcrum during severe hyperflexion has split the entire neural arch and torn the top half from the bottom. Such injuries are rare. Much more common injury is the pinching of capsular ligament and other joint structures when the joint buckles. This buckling is usually a surprise stress with long muscles contracting before the intrinsic muscles are “set.” The pain causes a reactive muscle “splinting” to prevent further injury. This prevention of getting worse can also prevent normal improvement. If the sensory proprioceptive input is distorted the post traumatic subluxation may persist with the muscles and ligaments undergoing contracture (shrinkage) and hence become pathogenic.   

Moderate joint overload over a short time has minimal effects. Prolonged overload but with adequate resting intervals and sleep time for repair of injury induces hypertrophy of bone, muscle and ligaments. If this overload is continued with “double shift” work and minimal rest the joints will show cartilage thinning and the broadening of the joint to carry the overload. This is the classic osteoarthrosis in extremities and spines. It is a distorted repair process to meet the need.

In children with normal epiphyseal plates the sudden heavy overload or the continued moderate overload will cause epiphyseal fracture or an epiphysitis. This is the “little league” elbow, the knee & ankle plate separations of sports injuries. The most neglected problem of athletic injuries is the “double” injury. A slide that jams an ankle usually will subluxate a low lumbar joint, delay the healing and prolong recovery. Then too there are osteochondroses with no history of direct joint injury. Perthes disease has epiphyseal fragmentation due to proprioceptive input distortion which has continued for months following a lumbosacral subluxation, minimal but long forgotten. So it is clear that the infinite variation of joint overload at the spine in the sensory and trophic pathway as well as peripheral joint overload can explain much of the varied pathology of injury.  Add this to hereditary weakness to make for an infinite complexity.

Use it or lose it applies to the joints and their activating muscles. Loading must be within the range of adaptability. Beyond that range the overloading can start arthritis, athroses, fractures, tears, epiphysitis, osteochondrosis, osteochondromatosis, bursitis and others. All these are from distortions of the neural mechanism at the segment of the cord supplying the joint.

After realizing some generalities of peripheral and spinal joint function we can better consider a special joint problem known as a subluxation. Spinal joint problems are much like other joint problems plus additional neurological insults. A sprained thumb or ankle will be favored during healing without causing other major problems. Any spinal joint sprain can likewise heal quite rapidly without complications. Most minor spinal sprains do heal uneventfully but there is an exception. That is the time when there is a distortion of the sensory nerve input at the level of the injured joint. If a person sees a slight step down he can manage very well.  However if he unexpectedly steps off a curb the body reacts to the emergency. If the body is well trained and in fine condition this jolt is absorbed easily. If tired or weak the spine may buckle with the long muscles jerking into action before the short intrinsic muscles have the spinal joints stabilized and ready for the sudden move. This may pinch the articular capsule and shoot a barrage of emergency warnings into that segment of the spinal cord in a very distorted manner. If the nerve system recognizes the actual positioning of the joint it can be recovered quickly but if the message is badly garbled there is inappropriate response. Short muscles contract quickly to stabilize the joint and prevent further damage but with the distorted messages the contractions persist much too long and prevent normal recovery. Even this is not devastating except for the fact that in this same spinal segment are the reflex pathways and the controls of skin temperature and of visceral function. People with a severe whiplash injury at the brain stem level often have hot and cold flashes for weeks after the injury. Others have serious vertigo or visual disturbances. If there is double injury with upper cervical and mid-thoracic subluxations peptic ulcers often develop. Correction of these two subluxations induces rapid healing of the ulcers.

What Is a subluxation? It is the spinal sprain which is distorting the sensory input in turn causing altered efferent function. The total integrative function of that segment is distorted. Signs and symptoms of a subluxation include altered motion, altered sensations (usually pain or paresthesias) and aberration of some or all functions served by that cord level. If this is prolonged there can be slow disintegration or chronic malfunction of the entire periphery. The cybernetic mechanism known as the trophic reflex with its proprioceptive sensory component is a major factor in most pathologies, whether ulcers, pneumonia, arthritis or slow healing of wounds. Therefore subluxation recognition and correction is really an ultra-specialty. Intervertebral subluxations have a very wide range of side effects. This is truly the core of chiropractic science and art.

Joint function is the basis of body motion and flexibility. Increased flexibility means increased adaptability. Conversely loss of flexibility is loss of adaptability directly related to physical health. Exercise to promote flexibility is a critical part of any health program but if carried to extremes will inflict several types of joint injury. Joints are to be loaded and worked but not to be dangerously overloaded. One excellent indicator is comfort tolerance. Any joints can and should be worked until tired and almost sore to attain most rapid build-up. Any overload should be carefully monitored. Build up of body flexibility and adaptability promotes health. It is much more logical than fighting disease. Shoveling darkness from a room is not as effective as turning on the light. Build up adaptability and the incoordinations called disease will disappear. Yes, joint function is important. Exercise to maintain flexibility is very important but overloading is hazardous in many ways. Maintain flexibility & with it health. 

Reflections

In 1928 I first became acutely aware of chiropractic. My mother was having adjustments and improving rapidly after years of gall bladder trouble. She had previously been the receptionist for an MD so had the best medical care. Yes, I was astonished at the variety of conditions which improved with chiropractic care. At that time most chiropractors palpated well and adjusted major subluxations regardless of the previous diagnoses. They were not treating diseases in any manner. Someone asked “Is chiropractic good for asthma?” “No it is bad for asthma but good for the patient.” The history of the dramatic chiropractic results from 1910 until World War II staggers the young minds of today. There is a reason why many present chiropractors do not accept really sick persons but accept mostly strains and sprains. This is deplorable because chiropractic grew up on the recoveries of the medical failures. Of course it is not a panacea but precise subluxation correction is the difference in recoveries of a wide gamut of diseases.

One problem is the connotation of the word diagnosis. Most persons want a label, a big diagnosis, a fashionable name to tell the neighbors. 5ome want a diagnosis more than they want relief. It was more fashionable to have a “slipped disc” than a sprained back. Now a “carpal tunnel syndrome” sounds great but the related mid-cervical subluxation is often missed by the chiropractor who is concentrating on the single “infallible” diagnosis. Most persons still do not realize that a patient can have six different diagnoses at once, all valid but totally different. The calcified subdeltoid bursitis is good for attention in any crowd but the “crick” in the neck that perpetuates it is too low brow to mention. Tietze’s syndrome is an exotic label, but the ones I have seen cleared quickly by precisely adjusting Tl-2 even though the subluxation was too minimal to be seen on any X-ray film. The “trick knee” with “torn meniscus” rates higher than an L4 subluxation on many totem poles. Even the chiropractic college faculties have fallen for this erudite status to the extent that many have forsaken nerve tracing and have never learned to “seek the subtle subluxation.” Such neglect of these fundamentals has left a gap in clinical efficiency. Many critical subluxations are being missed.

The current fascination with orthopedics, orthopedic testing and sports injuries has thrown many chiropractors off course. Certainly a sprained knee is sore, swollen and hot but the healing is grossly delayed by the L4 subluxation which was usually caused or aggravated concurrently by the same injury. One lad came grudgingly on crutches unable to bear weight on such a sprained knee which was almost untouchable. Immediately after L4 was adjusted the knee could be touched. It was still swollen, red and hot but he stood on it gingerly and said “It is sore but the sharp pain is gone.” Fourteen hours later he walked in with the swelling 80% gone. No therapy was used, no ice and no bandage. For examination I had him remove the elastic bandage and leave it off because that impeded circulation. He said “I don’t believe it.” I Said “You don’t have to believe it, just enjoy it.”

Yes, ice packs to reduce swelling and tape to limit injurious motion are useful but many have become fascinated with such first aid and forgot to “Seek the subtle subluxation,” or at times the gross and obvious subluxation which is usually the concurrent double injury. The concept of “double injury” with the peripheral joint damage and the concurrent spinal sprain causing a subluxation directly related to the injured area has not been adequately stressed in the sports injury classes. The double diagnosis, the related subluxation is not emphasized in the diagnosis classes or in the pathology classes as it was when I was a student in the late 30s. These classes were taught by chiropractors who had years of experience with many pathologies which are avoided by the recent graduates. Those of us who have done first aid duty at track meets have often had participants brought in with a “pulled groin muscle”. They asked for ice and tape as others had done. By promptly adjusting the subluxation of L4-5 the problem cleared within two minutes so that they could walk comfortably. The “torn ligaments” in the knee and the “torn meniscus” made similar three minute recoveries compared to the three month recovery usual with the best physiotherapy but no spinal adjustment. General lumbar manipulation will not do this job but precise adjusting of L4-5 will do it in most instances. Therefore I commend the profession on enriching the curriculum but I deplore the abandonment of our fundamental strong points in favor of imitating others who know nothing of precise palpation and precise adjusting of subluxations. There has been too much neglect of precise nerve tracing. Yes “trigger points” and “acupuncture points” have been mentioned but seldom have they become a part of nerve tracing according to Grey’s Anatomy. More intense correlation in this area will greatly improve our clinical results. This helps to pinpoint the KEY subluxation for precision adjusting. It helps to avoid the general shotgun approach.

Another fallacy often heard is “We have done no research.” Of course there were no chiropractic articles in Index Medicus. They were not welcomed. Nor were there any older osteopathic articles included then. Anyone perusing D.D. Palmer’s book of 1910 can see that he had done much investigation in many information sources and had tested the practicality of his own original ideas. He was doing continual research and did write up many reports. Louisa Burns and C.P. McConnell had done much research into subluxation pathology induced in animals and in man. Dissection findings were published from 1905 to 1910 in Osteopathic literature. At the request of Solon Langworthy, a DC of 1906, Swanberg researched with many dissections and published two books, THE INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMEN and THE INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMINA IN MAN. Palmer College had compiled data on voluminous clinical results published by J.N. Firth. The B.J. Clinic in the 40s & 50s published extensive data with certified medical diagnoses before and after adjustments. Carl Cleveland Jr. published data on induced subluxations in rabbits and cats with dissection findings in 1965. Yet much of this was rejected as being “biased.” Every investigation is inherently biased but in different directions and to different degrees. In the mid 30s J.R. Verner wrote SCIENCE & LOGIC OF CHIROPRACTIC after dozens of mini-seminars with a group of chiropractors who were asking a prominent professor of clinical neurology for his explanation of chiropractic results. In 1940 Fred Illi and Joe Janse did extensive sacroiliac research and found an intracapsular interosseous ligament previously undescribed and still not in the anatomy books. However the anatomy books do now describe the synovial membrane and do allow some sacroiliac motion.

In 1948 at CMCC we did several series of X-ray studies on normal spinal motion but lack of outside interest discouraged publications. Kapandji’s current book shows almost the same findings despite his ambiguity on sacroiliac motion. His book is now generally used. CMCC studies with cineroentgenographic examination and concurrent parallel skin temperature graphing in 1964 revealed the first indications of reversal subluxations. When first published there was no previous reference known. Since then there are hundreds of articles in roentgenological and orthopedic literature. However, many orthopedic men call this reversal of Occ-C1 during neck flexion the normal. Why? Since 90% of severely whiplashed patients do show cervical reversal subluxations and since 90% of the orthopedic patients so examined did have whiplash injury then it becomes a “statistical normal.” This does not make it the normal at all since reversal subluxations are not present in uninjured persons. Reversal subluxations can be altered with chiropractic care but rarely by other methods. Hence it is helpful to read all research papers with caution. 

Of course there has been much chiropractic research. Certainly there is a need to spot check the past research and to continue with still more advanced research. Applied neurophysiology is still virgin territory with its vast scope. THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM by Albert Kuntz, vol.3 had over 130 pages of bibliography. Yet many teachers have never heard of it. Efforts are commendable in that direction to recheck Kuntz data. Much of the valid most recent research makes D. D. Palmer sound right up to date.

However the final decision on chiropractic efficacy is NOT in legal chambers, not in political caucuses nor in Journals of Physiology. Rather it is in the hands of the patients who definitely know their good results without any lawyer’s opinions and without any “medical” approval. We must make our own valid standards, not just imitate others who are often taught that subluxations do not exist or at least have no effect.

It is good to see insurance equality laws and good to see more widespread interest in chiropractic science and in chiropractic art. However the great clamor to become orthodox is a mixed blessing. Too often we have thrown out the baby with the bathwater. Like the osteopaths we can have quicker general acceptance (by AMA) by abandoning our heritage of handling nearly every pathology IF we “treat” only musculoskeletal disorders (strains & sprains). Then where do the distraught sick people go who have had inadequate relief elsewhere? Peptic ulcers, dysmenorrhea and pneumonia are much easier for a chiropractor to handle than is sciatica. They also have much quicker and more dramatic recoveries. Yet many younger chiropractors will send them elsewhere. This is a situation which I deplore. If the chiropractic “orthopedist” who has the right to that specialty will only send the sick patients to another chiropractor who handles all subluxations then I would be much happier. Our specialty is the diagnosis and the adjustment of subluxations and of their relationship to the patient’s complaint. Diagnosis of the ulcer is important but diagnosis of the related subluxations is even more important to the patient and to the chiropractor. Certainly we must recognize the ulcers, but we must also find the subluxations and then correct them. The ulcer healing is a good side effect of the adjustments.

One other mixed blessing is the curriculum change over the years. In the late 30s we went directly into clinic handling outpatients at the beginning of our second year. We studied the deeper details of the basic sciences later. Certainly we had a solid core of enough anatomy, physiology, pathology and diagnosis with simple spinal technics to adequately manage average patients. Working in the clinic reinforced the fundamentals which became automatic. The exceptions, the special situations and the complex technics came later in the course as they might be needed. At present the clinical material is introduced so late that the students seem to forget why they came to college. They have learned all the “irreversible” pathologies and having little experience with hearing of or seeing such recoveries with adjustments. The students are often afraid to touch a sick patient. There is a better sequence and we are trying to swing the pendulum toward it.

Every basic science presentation can and should have clinical emphasis. The chiropractic management of any malfunction is based upon applied neurophysiology. By knowing the multiple innervations of the stomach it is easier to see the subluxations. With ulcers these subluxations are not subtle. Hence the mention of specific cases during all diagnosis classes was routine when I was a student. Pathology classes included case management to a lesser degree. We did not dwell upon the medical management but rather upon the chiropractic management in all diagnosis classes. Students and their families were patients in the clinic and they discussed results from the first week as new students. So the basic sciences were learned concurrently with chiropractic management. This was done at increasing depth each year. Hence it seemed much easier to learn the subjects together than it did separately. I look forward to increasing integration of all courses for maximum practicality. Yes I see more research results in neurophysiology each year. When D.D. talked about trophic nerves there was no approval by physiologists. Now there are entire sections on neurotrophic problems. D.D. Palmers intuitive understanding is more up to date and is more acceptable now than it was 80 years ago. The brain research institutes are discovering more about the “quality” of the nerve impulse every year. The allopaths have been denying this but are now having to accept what we have been working with for years. So let our research be directed into the areas of the subluxation and its far reaching ramifications. Some have called this the subluxation complex. It is much more than just the “Little Bone-Out of Place.” Some have called it the subluxation plus the associated neuropathy- However, just because some of us cannot find the “subtle subluxation,” the concurrent injury with the sprained ankle, knee or shoulder does not mean that there is no subluxation. The subluxations with glomerulonephritis or with peptic ulcers are much more obvious. With appreciation of advances in details of knowledge but with caution on abandoning sound tradition we can and will make further improvement in real clinical efficiency.

The Finger Walk

What could a “finger walk” possibly have to do with child development? It is a method by which your child or grandchild can walk sooner, talk earlier and learn faster. Many children are unknowingly slowed in their development simply because some movements and exercises were denied to them.

Do you recall the “Crossed Pattern’ exercise of coordinated crawling which was clearly demonstrated to induce rapid improvement in retarded children? Dr. Hudson Hoagland at Wooster institute of Experimental Biology in Massachusetts did one of the earliest convincing projects of this. Dr. Delacato and others have given similar coordinated neuromuscular training which has been very helpful. Yet, what about the apparently normal child? Can he do his best without any training? How do you know that he is normal? Slightly retarded children are usually not discovered until much later than the first year.

You can start a training program which will enhance graceful development long before the child can crawl. You can start the first day of life with this training. The proper name is “Proprioceptive Facilitation to Enhance Neuromuscular Dexterity.” Dexterity is the basis of a pianist’s finger motion, of an acrobat’s agility, of a skater’s precision. All of us know that neuromuscular refers to muscular movement and the nerves that drive the muscles. Proprioception is not such a common term. This is the special sense by which we know, even with the eyes closed, whether a hand is open, closed, overhead or pendant. Without this same proprioceptive sensation from the feet and legs, we could not stand with the eyes closed, we would fall over. Hence this is the neurological basis for all skilled movements.

Every muscle has thousands of special nerve endings sensitive to stretching, load and tension. These are sending reports to the spinal cord at a frequency up to one thousand per second from each one of these thousands of “observation stations.” Every joint has thousands of similar endings responding to pressure and load. They too are sending reports continually at millions per second when we are asleep. They are reporting at very high frequencies when we are moving about with thousands of millions per second. Fortunately we don’t have to sort out consciously the millions of messages per second and make the proper adaptation to the changes of position. This is done by our “super-computers” in the unconscious part of the brain and spinal cord. Still this reporting, this continual adjusting and re-adjusting of hundreds of muscles must be done in ore order to make any skilled movements.

When a baby is born, the synapses, the spark gaps between individual nerve cells are relatively open. Starting any thought or action the first time is not easy. When an act is repeated, there is a growth of the nerve to close this gap and to form more parallel gaps so that if one gets tired, the traffic can go over the other alternate routes. This makes every repetition easier and is hence called “facilitation.” The actual growth process of the nerve is callneurobiotaxis.” Thus we can see that there is an actual physical basis for habit patterns. The more anything is repeated the easier it is to accomplish. With any skill we must use it or lose it. Handwriting is a classic example. So is standing and walking. Now the question again. How does a finger walk help one to sit, stand and walk both sooner and better?

When the child is first put up on the shoulder, long before he can even hold up the head, you can start training every joint in that spinal column. Two fingers placed astride the spinal column, finger tips together, can be lightly pressed to barely move that joint. Now move one finger up about 1/4 inch and press with the tip, repeating with each finger as it advances. This will be a definite walking action with the finger tips, not through the yellow pages but up the spinal column. Every light finger tip pressure will gently move the joint and send a flood of impulses, proprioceptive reports, to the spinal cord. You will feel the muscles shift under the fingers with each step. Part of these reports go right up to the conscious brain so that the child is increasingly aware that he has a spine and that it moves. The child will squirm, wiggle and giggle as this is very gently done for about one minute every morning and every night. With this very simple method of exercise, enriched development will be taking place daily. The child will grow and develop at his maximum speed without retardation (if no subluxations are present). Generally, they will sit sooner, stand sooner, walk sooner and more gracefully besides learning to talk sooner. This may not sound possible but many parents have written to verify these findings. One couple has two children, both slightly retarded. They used the crossed-pattern crawling and the Delacato exercises. Both helped somewhat. With their third and fourth children, they started much sooner with the finger walking exercise. Obviously you can start very much earlier with this game. Both these later children did show much earlier learning patterns of every muscular action and much better total mental accomplishment.

When the child is on the shoulder, it is very easy to do this finger walk. When the child is lying prone, it is also easy. This should be done several times every day. As soon as the child can sit up, you can clasp the hands around the waist and use the thumb tips to do the same walk up the spinal column. This can be continued daily for years, in fact, no one is too old to benefit from a few minutes each day from a similar walking exercise. Traditionally, the Bohemians had trained bears to walk up and down the back of adults. Some persons did a similar hand walk up the back which in that country developed into a system called “Napravy.” In some countries the mother will hold the small children by the  hands so that the child can walk up and down Dad’s back when he comes home all tired.

The benefits for adults have been known in many countries for many years but the explanations have varied. Now it is definitely shown to be very helpful with development of very young children. It can be used effectively from 9 days to 90 years without harm if done gently. There will be instances when one area is very stiff or sore after some injury. These will require professional attention. Still every layman can help his own family to remain flexible, to develop at maximum speed and to develop the physical agility which can be trained. Such children can become much more graceful and physically adept. All will be more adaptable and hence will be healthier and more intelligent. That is worth trying.

Don’t delay your child’s development. Play the game. The name of the game is “Finger Walk”.  

The Neurology of Immunization

The topic of immunity has always been controversial and promises to be that for some time to come. From the first comparative observation of patients with relation to other cases of the same disease, it was noted that with some conditions, the patient became immune after the first attack. Conclusions were drawn that natural immunity does exist and that an immunity can be actively acquired. Everyone agrees so far. The next step was to be deliberately exposed and induce a mild form of the disease to provide immunity later. This is still practiced by the laity with parotitis; mumps is easier on a child than an adult. From there Jenner et. al., tried inducing related diseases, e.g. cowpox, as an immunity to smallpox. This basic method is still used with smallpox vaccination. (Latin – vaccines, vacca, a cow) A further step then was to use serum from an immune animal supposedly containing antibodies not as a preventative, but to abort an already developed case of diphtheria. Here the patient has no part in making antibodies, so it is called a passive acquired immunity, is of short duration and of questionable value.

From these historical observations we have a terminology of immunization

     Immunity

  1. Natural – The wild carnivora are probably practically exempt from bacterial infection.1
  2. Acquired
  3. naturally – as result of the disease clinically
  4. artificially
  5. actively – as result of the disease through deliberate inoculation with an antigen
  6. passively – by injection with immune serum already containing antibodies

When any substance is injected into the tissues there is a reaction which may neutralize, clump, dissolve, kill or precipitate the invading substance. The injected protein is called an antigen. The reaction of the antibodies has been thought to be either neutralizing or absorbing. Depending on their actions, these antibodies are classed as antitoxins, lysins, phagocytes, opsonins, agglutinins or precipitins. Serum from an immune patient will have these actions in a test-tube or on a culture plate of appropriate bacteria. It has not been established whether this actually takes place in the blood stream.

Best & Taylor2 define anaphylaxis as a reaction which follows the administration of a foreign substance (usually a protein) into an animal previously sensitized to the substance. Horse serum injected into a guinea pig results in bronchospasm and frequently death from pulmonary arteriospasm and the clumping of leukocytes which block blood circulation.

In man, fatal anaphylactic shock may follow the injection of horse serum into a person who has been sensitized by a previous administration. Allergic reactions, in general, show many similarities to anaphylactic reactions…although in the case of allergic reactions sensitization by an earlier exposure is apparently not required, the reaction appearing upon the first known contact with the foreign substance.3  [The reaction takes place in the tissue cells and not in the blood plasma. Sudden death may result from the injection of horse serum e.g. diphtheria antitoxin or antitetanic serum, into an asthmatic subject without previous sensitization] W.H. Manwaring found that the blood of the sensitized animal could be replaced by blood from normal animals without affecting the first animal’s sensitivity. 3

Previous sensitization is not always necessary. Best & Taylor say that intravenous peptone injection gives a similar reaction without previous sensitization. In order to better understand these reactions of the body to foreign substance, we must recall that

Adrenalin when injected hastens the clotting process…. Adrenalin has no effect upon the coagulation of blood alter it has been shed.4

Hence, It can’t possibly be a chemical reaction, but must be a reflex mechanism. Zondek says that even he hormones in the body are inactive until they reach the destination where they become activated.5 With this in mind, we can better understand Albert Kuntz in The Autonomic Nervous System.6 In 1937 Samara discovered 

…phagocytic activity of reticulo-endothelial cells in the bone marrow like that in the corresponding cells in other organs, may be increased due to sympathetic stimulation. The hemopoietic activity of the bone marrow also appears to be subject to modification through sympathetic nerve stimulation. 7

Somogyi (1938) …[reported] Faradic stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunks resulted in increases of 27% in the number of erythrocytes and 23% in the amount of hemoglobin. 8

Muller and Myers (1924) found the peripheral blood almost devoid of leukocytes for about ten minutes following the injection of 10cc of a 20 per cent peptone solution. During this period the leukocytes were concentrated in the vessels which are innervated by the splanchnic nerves, particularly those of the liver. [This involves only the polymorphs.]…. If one limb is deprived of its sympathetic innervation, blood taken from this limb, following injection of one of the above solutions, shows no marked reduction in the number of leukocytes, although the rest of the peripheral area exhibits leucopenia. This fact strongly supports the theory that the distribution of leukocytes is regulated by the autonomic nerves.9

Further data also indicate that endothelial permeability is modified by autonomic nerve impulses.

Examination of the skin of a patient in a chill reveals pallor, pilomotor stimulation, transient perspiration, and lowered temperature. The arterioles…are contracted. The muscles exhibit tremor. …These phenomena cannot be explained as the direct effect of bacterium or the toxin…, but must be regarded as secondary effects of the toxic agent mediated through the nervous system.10

Peterson & Muller (1930)….in their experiments carried out on dogs, [found that] external pressure on the eye sufficient to cause perceptible reflex cardiac inhibition applied for four minutes with repetition after five minutes was followed by a period of approximately seventy five minutes [of peripheral leucopenia]…. When ocular pressure was applied for two minutes and repeated at one minute intervals, peripheral leukocytosis set in immediately with diminution in the calcium content of the lymph.10

With that much established on nervous regulation of phagocytosis, etc., Kuntz quotes a series of experiments

As reported by Reitler (1924) the formation of antibodies was initiated in rabbits by injection of an antigen into the ear following ligation of its vessels. The ear was also amputated immediately (about 3 seconds) after the injection. This result shows clearly that the formation of antibodies may be initiated reflexly and that it may occur in the absence of the antigen in the circulating blood.11

Bogendorfer (1927, 1932) reported the results of a series of experiments, carried out on dogs, in which he demonstrated that the production of agglutinin is influenced by impulses emanating from a central nervous center. The injection of a specific antigen which resulted in active agglutinin production in normal animals was without effect, in the experiments, in animals in which the spinal cord was previously transected in the cervical region. If the cervical spinal cord was transected after the production of agglutinin was initiated, following the injection of the antigen, the reaction continued. These data support the theory that the production of immune substances represent specific reflex secretory reactions to specific stimuli.11

Immunity and bodily resistance, in a large measure, are determined by the functional condition of the autonomic nervous system.12

Here then, we have evidence of the production of antibodies actuated through the nervous system without the antigen in the blood stream and conversely, a bacteremia without the antigen response where he nervous system is not intact. If this can be done consistently, then there must be a specific nerve stimulus with antigenic properties.

Speransky points out more clearly the role of the nervous system in pathogenesis and immune response. Meyer & Ranson in proving the tetanus toxin traverses nerve trunks, introduced tetanus toxoid subcutaneously and blocked the corresponding nerve with tetanus antitoxin which prevented or retarded the symptoms. Aristovsky and Ponomarev repeated these, but blocked the nerve pathway with normal serum, producing identical results.

In order to settle the question finally, we decided to repeat the experiment in a grotesque form and to bar the path with tetanus toxin itself. …controls [were made] with antitoxin and normal serum. …In some cases an even more pronounced effect was obtained by using toxin. Consequently the act itself of introducing a foreign substance into the nerve, whatever the nature of the substance, plays a fundamental role in the process….13

After establishing that tetanus toxin and novocaine could be mixed without altering the toxin. They injected dogs and rabbits.

One animal of each pair received a subcutaneous injection into the knee of tetanus toxin. The other the same dose of toxin mixed with novocaine. In more than half the cases, the animals given a mixture of toxin with novocaine did not become ill. 13

Hence, the disease is obviously a nervous reflex, with the antigen (toxin) acting ONLY as a specific nerve stimulus. Speransky points out that

Diphtheria is a specific process. Now, exactly why do we call it specific? Two aspects of the matter must be distinguished here: the first is the external manifestation of the process; the second is the immune-biological reaction…Nikitin & Ponomarev…studied the effects of introducing diphtheria toxin into the central nervous system of guinea pigs. The animals have previously been given intravenous injections of enormous doses of specific antitoxins. This did not save them from death which usually occurred within the first twenty-four hours. On dissection, characteristic changes of the suprarenal glands and cardiac ganglia were discovered in these animals, although under the conditions indicated not a single molecule of the toxin could have reached either the suprarenal glands or the heart. It is clear that these changes under ordinary circumstances also do not depend on contact between the toxin and the elements of the organs themselves, and that the producing agent consists in process of a nervous nature. Nevertheless, the abovementioned changes in the cardiac ganglia and especially in the suprarenals, are regarded as typical, precisely of diphtheria.14

Serious evaluation of tetanus and diphtheria makes it vividly clear that even the pathological changes in the tissue are definitely reflex mechanisms and are NOT chemical reactions based on contact between the tissues of the organs themselves and the toxins. As for immunological reactions of diphtheria, Speransky cites the results of Ponomarev’s experiments15 which show that under the most favorable introduction of antitoxin into the central nervous system, there could be an abortive reaction if done within 45 minutes after the toxin introduction. By 60 minutes there was no possible way for the disease to be altered. What does that mean then to the current practice of making throat cultures and the injecting of antitoxin after 3 or 4 days? As for the prophylaxis by immunization, he cites mortality rates in epidemics among the unprotected and fully inoculated groups with no overall differences. In fact, in many immunized groups the mortality rate was about tripled, but not always. Further, showing that most pathology is of reflex character, Speransky cites another series of experiments16 showing that tuberculosis of the kidney can be produced bilaterally in 100% of the cases by inoculating unilaterally a testicle. Kidney carbuncles replete with staphylococci can be induced by injecting a drop of formalin into an ovary. Further, necrotic ulcers of the foot which have many obviously endogenous bacteria can be induced by sectioning the sciatic nerve and then irritating the centripetal end of it with formalin. Since the ulcers begin as a deep abscess with no surface communication, the bacteria must be endogenous.

Speransky takes up the question of syphilis,17 which is a typical microbial infestation. Actually one can have a spirochetemia for an indefinite time without any symptoms, just as Kuntz had pointed out, and it is possible to have the clinical disease without the microbe in the body at all, provided that the microbe was used as a specific nerve stimulus to start off the reflex response. These two conditions of spirochetemia and clinical syphilis are entirely separate entities with only the moment of specific nerve stimulus in common. If the microbe enters into the blood stream without stimulation of the nerve endings at inoculation, syphilis will not develop. This happens in nearly 2% of lab animals. Clinically it is well known that the spirochete is not demonstrable after the acute chancre stage, in most cases.

Speransky reports that

Bacterial, chemical and physical agents were alike capable of beginning dystrophic processes within the network of the nervous system, ….[which] easily took on particular qualitative forms…. In experimental tuberculosis produced by infecting healthy laboratory animals, the bacteria is the initiator of the disease and being a specific irritating agent, it  consequently gives rise to a constant form of response…. In the human clinic the tubercle bacilli are only very rarely the initiators of the disease….In cases of spontaneous tuberculosis it is futile to increase immunity by the introduction of live or dead virus or specific antibodies…. In one and the same animal the microbes behave differently at two almost neighboring places. In one place they produce generalization…beyond the limits of the injection; in the other they perish, sometimes so rapidly that it is not even possible to discover the spot. Immunity does not deprive the antigen of its property of being a nerve irritant, and tuberculin may easily intensify the already dystrophic process. Instead of the old foci being eliminated, new ones are formed. 18

From these observations Speransky states

Our task was to elucidate the basic mechanisms common to all diseases; and the reader has seen that the results of each of our experiments invariably turned our attention to the nervous system. The same happened in regard to the question of specific reactions. The quality of irritating agent proved to be its capacity to evoke in the nervous system the cyclical development of a definite process…. More than once, isolated voices of physicians have been raised in warning against the seductions of inoculations and the so-called diagnostic tests, (…Pirquet, Shick, Dick, etc.) which are widely used in schools and children’s clinics…. The process [pathology initiated by the inoculation] may break out after many weeks or months and be manifested in an unexpected form, being, nevertheless, causally connected with an operation (inoculation) about which both doctor and patient have ceased to think…. As a result, the least scratch or prick is capable of being a stimulus for senescence. [Here is the climax.] The effect is enhanced if the scratch is accompanied by chemical irritation, especially from a substance of protein nature which has the property of evoking special forms of irritation.” [Can you think of a better description the usual immunization?] Consequently the clinic, and especially the children’s clinic, should accurately estimate the real need for skin tests and all sorts of inoculation…; otherwise the so-called “achievements of science” may easily be converted into one of the methods of crippling humanity.19

In summary, Speransky states that the reaction to an antigen

…is an old, excellently constructed function, in no way inferior to secretion of saliva, circulation of blood, etc. The encounter between the micro-organism and the macro-organism is the impulse evoking this function, just as bread placed in the mouth evokes secretion of saliva. In both cases, the quality and quantity of the response corresponds to the character of the agent evoking it. [This is]… a normal or physiological function, directed towards active maintenance of the equilibrium between the organism and its environment… Disease, as we have seen, is something entirely different. Its manifestations go outside the limits of physiology, they are not necessary to the organism… Hence, struggle is not disease and disease is not struggle. We have here two absolutely distinct phenomena. Coinciding in time, they actually intermingle their features but do not fuse them….[The] mutual interaction in the encounter between the foreign agent and the reacting organism…is in accordance with purely physiological laws. The pathological process arising simultaneously proceed independently. The task of medicine consists in finding means of actively interfering in their course…. Hence we have come to regard incubation as the time during which the irritation arising from one or several nerve points, draws other parts of the nervous system into the process and brings about temporary or permanent changes in them. 20

Neurophysiologists would refer to this as summation of impulses.  

Some of Speransky’s original experiments consisted of freezing spots of the cerebral cortex, a process which usually induces epilepsy and in certain degrees cause death. Later on

A special blow was delivered to our conception of the role of neurotoxins in this process when it became clear that ‘fatal’ freezing of the cortex at the usual spot, if carried out under narcosis but without morphine, practically loses all effect. 21

Friedland reported a series of experiments going further with anesthesia.22 A group of cats were given lethal doses of KCN. Naturally the controls died immediately. Those under anesthesia tolerated the KCN, which was excreted through the salivary glands. When the anesthesia cleared the animals showed no ill effects whatsoever. To further check the possibilities, another group of cats was given intravenous injections of camphorated oil and bile. Controls had severe epileptic convulsions and died with marked cerebral damage. Those under anesthesia showed neither convulsions nor cerebral damage. Lewisite, a violent irritant, was placed under the shaved thigh. Controls developed severe local inflammation while in those under anesthesia, the poison lay unabsorbed on the skin with no local reaction at all. As a check on hormonal action, a group of animals was anesthetized and then given insulin injections. Controls with insulin showed a marked drop in blood sugar as expected, even going into insulin shock. Under anesthesia the insulin went through the blood stream with no effect whatsoever on blood sugar. That reminds us of the effect of adrenalin on clotting time of shed blood and of Zondek’s work on hormones.5 Both responses are dependent upon normal nerve function. As a climax the situation of anaphylaxis was simulated with intramuscular milk injections. [Milk is a vicious foreign protein, good for that purpose.] The controls developed high fever and the leukocyte count doubled. The animals under anesthesia showed no ill effects. Friedland’s experiments strongly suggest that anaphylaxis is a reflex mechanism. It is evident that favorable or unfavorable antigen response is utterly dependent upon the integrity of the nervous system.23

Let us return to Speransky for methods of treatment. He had shown that every pathology was essentially a nervous mechanism. Nerve blockage, nerve section, general anesthesia and specific antisera were evaluated and discounted as being too severe. He devised a general massage for the central nervous system called pumplng.24 Cerebrospinal fluid was withdrawn (10 cc syringe) and reintroduced, withdrawn and reintroduced, in and out until a tinge of blood showed, the last withdrawal being discarded. This general massage was used with many conditions. One group of patients with quinine-resistant malaria included 11 cases of tropical form. In 10 of 11, after pumping without quinine, the symptoms cleared and the parasites disappeared from the blood and did not reappear. With many similar findings he concludes that

 the secret of the action of quinine in malaria, of salvarsan in syphilis and salicyclic preparations in rheumatism ….[is in] producing a definite form of nervous irritation. 24

Consequently he says

The medicine of Virchow, Pasteur and Ehrlich is approaching exhaustion and cannot cope with the contradictions that have arisen. 25

Obviously then, the nervous system of the host is the determining factor in any pathology and in any immune reaction. Even the tolerance of animal parasites and their virulence within the body depends upon the functional state of the nervous system.

In order to better evaluate the immune reactions, we should check into the state of the antigens more closely. The monumental work of Tissot26 goes further into that matter than any other I have seen. The third volume went to press in June, 1946.

Tissot’s work began with an investigation of cancer, especially a search for its cause. In 1922 he had already found the

…ovoid, transparent cells, with Brownian movement inside the other cells, numerous sticks like B. Typhosa [E. typhosa] having knobs at their ends and taking stain as well as numerous hyaline-like granulations of various sizes.26

In August 1959 Van Delen in his syndicated newspaper column cites “recent” discoveries of Leuchtenberger of “peculiar round bodies in polyp cells” and quotes

Helwig continued these studies and found identical round nuclei in ulcerative colitis. Leuchtenberger noted these bodies in more than 600 cases of benign and malignant polyps of the colon. Preliminary studies under the electron microscope indicate that viruses are in these bodies.

Tissot, however, followed this up in 1924 and found that the apparent virus discovered each year since by many investigators in cancer cells can be modified by cultural changes and fuse to form bacteria and then clump to form typical mycelia. Soon he found that degenerating normal cells will disintegrate and the debris will assume bacterial or virus forms. These granules and rods can and do then agglutinate and form typical germinal centers of molds which sprout mycelia that, in turn, break off to form more granules and rods. This is coming so fast that it sounds fantastic for bacterial forms to be changing forms and characteristics, but before we are too critical of this great scientist, let us check with an accepted bacteriologist, Jordan.

Bacteria, like higher organisms respond to changes in environment. This may be…either morphological or physiological. Capsules, flagella, and lipoid sheaths may be lost or accentuated. Spore formation and virulence may be lost or accentuated…. Increased resistance may be developed so that chemotherapy loses effectiveness. Ordinary laboratory cultures when plated out on agar media develop into two kinds of colonies. Smooth-virulent and rough-avirulent. 27

The constant tendency is toward the avirulent (rough) type. Hence, we know that bacteria are modified by their environment. Anthrax bacillus, diphtheria bacillus, and the vibrio of cholera are indistinguishable from identical saprophytic forms, except for serological or virulence tests. The same situation exists with the treponema of syphilis, leptospira, and entamoeba. When one has to inject the organisms into an animal to determine the virulence or non-virulence before naming the microbe, then what kind of specific science have we? Jordan further states

Tubercle bacilli and typhoid bacilli can sometimes pass through well-constructed filters. It is quite plausible to regard these filterable forms as portions of fragmented cells. Non-acid-fast granules were described by Much as occurring in the material from cold abscesses and elsewhere in which acid-fast bacilli could not be demonstrated but which proved to be infective. These granules are viable and virulent and give rise to typical acid-fast rods.27

Kendall28 found that by varying the culture medium he could, at will, make many common organisms disintegrate into filterable sub-microscopic forms or integrate them again into the usual visible morphology. Manwaring writes

The mere addition of sterile milk to a routine culture medium allegedly caused the acid-fast tubercle bacillus…to transmute into a non-acid-fast coccus…[which] can be grown indefinitely as an apparently stable new species.29  

With these facts from accepted authorities in this country pointing out the great variability of bacteria dependent upon their environment, we can be more open-minded for more of Tissot, when he states that streptococci “are constantly produced from aging sterile horse serum at room temperature.”30 Tissot discusses diphtheria toxin, a filtrate, which others claim to contain endo and exotoxins. He found the active agent of diphtheria to be composed of granules 0.2 – 0.7 micron which on contact with air are reintegrated into corynebacterium diphtheria within 2 to 4 days. After extensive illustration of many varied experiments he concludes that each bacterial species is only one provisionary form of basic living material.31 These subcellular bionts, the granules and the knobbed rods, are the building blocks of all normal cells and are the scrap material when the cells disintegrate. Consequently, each bacterial species can be modified and changed severely by environmental changes. So-called typical constant types are only those held under rigid control. These pathogens have both bacterial and hypomycetic (mold) forms. To point out that cellular disintegration results in bacterial forms he cites a classical experiment done by Servel in 1874.32 A dog is sacrificed by femoral hemorrhage, the abdomen opened, the liver and kidneys ligatured and removed aseptically, then immediately suspended in a 1% solution of chromic add (a bacteriocide) and kept at normal laboratory temperature – (15-20°C). After 5 days microscopic examination will show the periphery to be perfectly sterile, no bacteria and only the normal microzymic granules; the center, by contrast, is filled with bacteria which are active. This was vigorously denied by Pasteur. Altman, Bechamp and others repeated these experiments and refuted Pasteur. More recently Wurtz & Hermann showed E. coli in the liver, spleen and kidney from 24 – 36 hours after death in 16 of 32 autopsies.34 Others said there must be intestinal lesions which illustrates the falsified interpretations, thanks to Pasteur’s errors.33 Tissot points out that

…biopsies of liver, spleen, kidney, etc. from normal healthy living animals give rise to E. coli cultures…. Cultures of normal blood or serum…oxylated plasma or pure fibrinogen solution give rise to the same bacteria. Hence, the allegation of infection by E. coli traversing the intestinal mucosa is not only false, it is ridiculous. …Rico found E. coli in the liver 20 of 27 times 15 – 45 minutes after death…. Wurtz showed E. coli 5 of 7 times in the heart cavity and in the peritoneal cavity as soon as the temperature dropped to between 29.5 and 32°C. Rico found Proteus vulgaris and E. coli…with cantheride poisoning during the crises.33

With that start on the nature of bacteria and toxins which are the antigens in immunology, let us venture further into this field. Tissot shows that barley grains with the surfaces sterilized can be ground and cultured. In 24-28 hours on broth culture they grow Cladosporium which by conjunctival inoculation develops typical false membrane and the typical diphtheria bacilli.

Does diphtheria antitoxin immunize against or even retard diphtheria? M.D.s know that the incidence in immunized and non-immunized humans is about the same… Statistics published in Greece and France prove that immunization does NOT decrease the number of cases, rather they increase…. In Greece, general immunization was performed on everyone from 1926. In 1929 they had 750 more cases than previously and in 1934, 1840 MORE…. The cases doubled in France and quadrupled in Germany during the 10 years of heaviest immunization.34

Regarding tetanus, Tissot states

Faber, Behring, & Kitasato in 1890 filtered out the bacteria and communicated tetanus with the filtrate. They developed in the same year the tetanus antitoxin which worked in vitro and rendered an injected laboratory animal refractory but it did not help a tetanized animal…. The general fatal mistake was to assume that what worked in animals also worked in man. Actually the tetanus toxin often sensitized man and prepared him for anaphylactic shock. In animals the reaction was one of autogenous vaccine and was good ONLY for the animal from which it was derived…. Cl. Tetani is definitely autogenous with each animal species…. Tetanus toxin on air exposure cultures typical E. coli.” [Of these findings Tissot states] “Tetanus antitoxin and diphtheria toxoid ought to be outlawed because they are worthless and also injurious.35

Tissot’s studies of the tubercle bacillus show it to be a developmental stage of degeneration of the knobbed rod which is a normal cell component.

In 1865, Pidoux wrote, “Tuberculosis is a spontaneous degeneration”. Today he stands justified in spite of later errors by the Pasteurian school. …Since it is an endogenous condition… It is impossible to be immunized against ANY autogenous disease.36

Regarding rabies, Tissot states

The Pasteur treatment consists of injections of rabid rabbit spinal cord of increasing virulence. It started in 1885. In 1886 [more died from the Pasteur treatment than from dog bites.] Dog symptoms and those of man rabid from a dog bite are convulsive. Rabbit  symptoms are paralytic. [This difference allows reports blaming the Pasteur treatment.] Brains of rabid dogs were obtained from the government laboratory and checked. Negri bodies proved to be well developed spores of Aspergillus. Typical Aspergillis developed richly in the tissue culture. These spores, emulsified and injected subdurally in dogs developed clinical rabies and the convulsive crisis on the 3d day. (Dogs dying AFTER the Pasteur treatment have paralytic, rabbit, serum type.) Rabies, therefore, is developed within the nervous system by the development of Aspergillus. It is actually autogenous. Under these conditions vaccination is impossible.37

Regarding immunity, Tissot said.

Actually immunity against disease does NOT exist. It is only relative. This is because the disease passes to the chronic mycellian stage and quickly clumps newly added foreign protein to old germinal masses.38

Obviously this material of Tissot’s 30 years of intensive research is quite revolutionary in comparison to the concepts usually taught to the lay public and in most U.S. colleges since WWI. He has pointed out the extreme variability of bacteria, morphologically and pathogenically. He has shown that bacterial forms are usually the end product of cell breakdown and, therefore, the immunization is not well supported. He has shown us that bacterial variation is due to environmental influence. In the clinic, is not the environment, the living tissue, under nervous regulation?  

To illustrate how fast the concepts of immunology are changing among accepted authorities, we need only check the lectures at the International Congress of Microbiologists. For years it has been known that filterable viruses can be grown only within living, crippled cells. When the cell has been injured just so and then infected the cell may recover and show no injury for several generations or it may lyse quickly with production of more virus. Bald states that.   

Wounding is, therefore, a prerequisite for entry by the virus… only a fraction of a percent of the cells… are wounded in the right way and to the right degree for the entry and establishment of virus in living…cells.39  [Luria defines a virus as a] submicroscopic unit capable of multiplication only inside specific cells. “40

Or it may be said that the virus acts as a template or pattern for further cellular breakdown to make more virus. Since a healthy, normal cell cannot be infected by a virus without previous injury, one could conclude that in epidemics a person must be sick first for the microbe to effect any disease process. Probably the crowning statement on this trend of ideas is by Alton Taylor

Even with the tremendous impact that the continually expanding tissue culture approach has made in recent years and its application to the analyses of various host-virus systems, the emphasis still is predominantly on virus activity, rather than on the more inclusive concept that the events that occur are the result of the interaction between the agent and the host cell. In this respect, it should be evident that the host cell is the determinant; in reality, the virus must be considered to be a relatively fixed entity entirely dependent upon the host, first for acceptance and growth, and finally, for manifestation of its presence. This manifestation may be grossly apparent in the form of a neoplasm or a disease, or it may remain dormant and be detectable only by special means. Although it has been established that many viruses can coexist in harmony with the host in latent form through many generations, there may be some basic nonpathogenic cellular entity which, under proper chemical or physical stress or stimulus is activated to become a virus-like or neoplastic agent. Whether the disease entity is considered a mutable gene or a cell particulate does not really matter…. In the further progressive analyses of these intricate associations between infectious agents and their hosts, it seems likely that certain concepts and even whole philosophies must change.41 [Emphasis added]   

Sperry42 reported on the reassociation of separated cells. By dissolving the intercellular cement with peptone they isolated the individual cells of embryonic tissues. It was noted that the kidney cells would reintegrate, form tubules and secrete; that cartilage cells would build cartilage and that skin cells make skin even to the start of feathers [chicken cells]. Extremely young cells would not integrate by themselves unless a few spinal cord cells or brain cells were included. In the presence of the nerve cells they would form special tissues. Each of these features illustrates more completely the nervous system supremacy, embracing pathology, bacterial form and pathogenicity including the antigen responses of immunity and of anaphylactic shock.9

[The following paragraph was added in August, 1960 regarding discoveries during the previous year]

There are already over 90 viruses identified as being capable of inducing paralytic polio in appropriately conditioned persons. If the foregoing material is borne out, as is probable by interpolation, eventually there will be as many different strains IS there are polio patients. This also helps explain why over 1,000 cases of paralytic polio developed in the USA during 1959, AFTER they had been “completely immunized”, and why many died of polio AFTER three and four Salk shots. This makes it easier to understand why Dr. G.W. Wilson.43 termed Salk vaccine “too dangerous” and said that the majority of paralytic polio cases were CAUSED by the vaccine. This information makes it more apparent that the nervous system is paramount. Theories are changing rapidly. [RW 1960] 23% of the paralytic polio cases in 1960 previously had received three or more Salk shots. Less than 1/3 of the population had been so inoculated. [RW 1962]

If the foregoing material has made any sense to you, it becomes apparent why the authorities are often the last to inoculate themselves and their families for immunization. With the concepts changing so fast, we can expect the Salk vaccine to be obsolete next year and be replaced in the “favor of the gods” by a live vaccine. 

In early summer 1959 the press announced that there was so much Salk vaccine becoming outdated that it would soon have to be dumped. In early July, 1959 the Ohio legislature passed a bill which in essence says that every child must have polio and other inoculations for admission into public schools UNLESS objected to by the parent or guardian in writing OR unless the school board had ruled otherwise. Since the entire responsibility falls back onto the individual school board members, they have a grave responsibility. One question remains to be answered. With inoculation of an individual under protest, who assumes the legal and moral responsibility for any ill effect of said inoculation, including crippling and death? The school board members should be aware of this question and of the entire immunization problem. 

Kuntz 6 summarized this matter by showing that antibodies can be developed in response to nervous reflexes without the antigen being in the body. He conversely showed that a bacteremia can exist without the usual antigen responses where the cervical cord was previously sectioned. If this can happen under these circumstances, it is likely that the antigen is merely incidental after the moment of initiating the specific nerve stimulus.

Speransky showed many examples of this same fact that bacteremia and the clinical disease are two distinct entities and can occur independently. He further showed that the characteristic pathologies develop reflexly and not as tissue response to chemical injury. The pathology can be far removed from the antigen and still develop as result of the pathogenic reflexes. Out of these observations he questioned the value and the safety of all skin tests and all inoculations believing that nerve tissues may become sensitized to such antigens and evoke a delayed pathological response from the irritant-stimulus. He has vividly demonstrated the nervous supremacy throughout the entire broad coverage of pathology. Speransky repeatedly showed that not only the continued presence of viruses, bacteria and even animal  parasites within the human body, but also their manifestation in any disease process, is entirely dependent upon a functionally adequate nervous system.

Tissot has shown more clearly the relationship of the micro-organism to each other and to the host. He has shown us vividly that bacteria, to remain fixed species, must have a rigidly controlled environment. In nature with a continually changing environment the bacterial forms are continually changing in adaptation. [see 44] With these changes, the microbe-host relationship is in good equilibrium most of the time. Only when the host loses its adaptability does disequilibrium exist which becomes manifest as pathology. Incidentally, it is generally agreed that the nervous system is paramount to adaptation. Tissot then shown that the bacteria are usually debris of cellular degeneration and as such are the product, not the cause, of disease. Tissot has shown the bacterial toxins to be minute granular bionts which are capable of independent existence. These granules can be reintegrated into the parental bacterial forms. Obviously then, the theory of immunization is considerably altered and it becomes ridiculous to attempt to inoculate against one’s own normal tissue components. Tissot has also shown here an explanation for the failure of most vaccines to be of any value to the patient. Since he has shown that the “vaccines” of diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, tuberculosis, and typhoid have no protective power and since they are dangerous, he says emphatically that 

THESE FIVE INOCULATIONS SHOULD BE PROHIBITED. With the inefficiency and the dangers of these… known, will the French continue to use their children as guinea pigs for the sole purpose of the financial prosperity of the Pasteur Institute?44

Both Speransky and Friedland cite tests on animals showing that when anesthesia temporarily suspends nervous activity, bacteria, toxins, chemical poisons and even hormones have NO effect. The role of the antigen is thus limited to a specific form of pathological nerve stimulus.

Taylor hints at all these findings and says that the host must invite the virus before “infection” can take place. The virus is entirely dependent upon the host. Concepts and even whole philosophies must change.40

Thus we can see a great difference between the test tube reactions and the body reactions. The supremacy of the nervous system becomes more apparent with each experiment.

In conclusion, please don’t sell yourself short. Remember that favorable or unfavorable antigen response is utterly dependent upon the functional integrity of the nervous system. There is a need for more thoughtful research. One topic in particular is the induction of subluxations with consequent pathology. Then their correction with reversal of pathology following adjustments. This was already done by some osteopaths at the turn of the century. The second is a study of antigen response including anaphylaxis following spinal adjustments, and under anesthesia. When the results are known, we will have an even better understanding of the neurology of immunization.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Jordan and Burrows, General Bacteriology, 13th ed, Saunders 1938 p 146 _
  2. Best, C. H., and Taytor, N .B., Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. 1945
  3. ibid p 263
  4. ibid p 92
  5. Zondek………….[source book missing]
  6. Kuntz, Albert, The Autonomic Nervous System, 4thed.. Lea & Febiger 1953
  7. ibid p 267
  8. Ibid p 267
  9. ibid p 463
  10. ibid pp. 463, 464
  11. ibid….p 473
  12. Kuntz, 3d ed. p. 492
  13. Speransky, A.D.,A Basis for the Theory of Medicine, International Publishers, NYC, 1943, pp. 291, 293
  14. ibid p. 302
  15. ibid. p 304
  16. ibid….p. 310, 362
  17. ibid….p. 316
  18. ibid p. 315, 319
  19. ibid p. 321, 324
  20. ibid p. 326, 327
  21. ibid p. 351
  22. Friedland, L., Vie Sovietique, Paris, (quoted in Magazine Digest, Nov 1947)
  23. Speransky, p 370
  24. ibid p 372
  25. ibid p. 407
  26. Tissot, J., Constitution des Organismes, animaux et vegetaux. Causes Des Maladies , qui les atteignent, Vol I, Paris, 1946 p2
  27. Jordan & Burrows, 14th ed. p 151, 152, 571
  28. Kendall,A.I. Northwestern University, 1932 report (cited by Verner, J.R. in Rational Bacteriology, p 266)
  29. Manwaring, W. H., Environmental Transformation of Bacteria, Science, May 25, 1934 (cited by Verner, p 267)
  30. Tissot, p 235 (following pages are from Volume III)
  31. ibid p 156
  32. ibid p 169
  33. ibid p 247
  34. ibid p 277
  35. Ibid pp 287-9, 296
  36. ibid pp 301, 312
  37. ibid pp 320, 326
  38. ibid p 332
  39. Bald, J. G., from Delbruck, Viruses, 1950, Proceedings of a Conference on the Similarities and Dissimilarities between Viruses Attacking Animals, Plants and Bacteria., California Institute of Technology, 1950 p 17
  40. Luria, S. E., (1969 Nobel Prize in physiology), from Delbruck, Viruses, 1950 p 7
  41. Taylor, Alton, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol 78, Art I, May 8, 1959
  42. Sperry, R. W., The Growth of Nerve Circuits, Scientific American, May, 1959
  43. Wilson, G. S., director of public Health Laboratory Service, England, 1959
  44. Tissot, J. p 35
  45. 45. Many 1990 news releases verify the virus adaptability, notably AIDS.]

(This lecture, illustrated with 22 slides, was first prepared for and delivered to the Ohio Chiropractic Physicians Association at their convention in Cleveland. Ohio, October 3d and 4th, 1959 at the Pick Carter Hotel. Additional material has been included during 1960 & 1962. See also Simon, H. J., Attenuated Infection, Lippincott Phila. 1960. This later material has similar conclusions on the minor part played by microorganisms.)

Here are some links to other RJ Watkins books and essays:

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